Molecular formula : C2H4O
MW : 44.05
nature : under normal temperature and pressure as a colorless gas, low temperature for the colorless liquid flows easily. A foul ether, a high concentration stimulate foul. -112.65 ° C melting point, boiling point of 10.35 ° C and 13.2 ° C (99.5 kPa), the relative density of 0.8824 (10/10 ° C), viscosity (0 ° C) 0.31mPa s, a refractive index. 3597, the flash point of less than 17.7 ° C and 429 ° C to ignite. The air explosion limit of 3% -100%. Dissolved organic solvents, and water mixed in any proportion. Long storage easy polymerization.
Preparation : 1859 French Wurtz the first to discover the chemical 2-chloro-ethanol and potassium hydroxide can be obtained role of ethylene oxide. After this method for the early development of industrial production of chlorine Alcohol Act, States have adopted over a period of time was the only industrial production methods. In 1983, Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) using ethylene oxide and direct air production of ethylene oxide (oxidation), the first production plant. After continue to improve, France naphtha Chemical Company (Naphtachimie) until 1953 before completion of the world's second oxidation devices. Since then, the traditional chlorohydrin gradually replaced by oxidation. In 1958, Shell (Shell) through the air instead of oxygen and ethylene production direct reaction of ethylene oxide. The United States in 1975 to the production of ethylene oxide all direct oxidation. World ethylene oxide production in the United States Shell oxygen Act, the United States scientific design (SD) of oxygen-Air France, the United States UCC air-oxygen law three technology-based. 1. Chlorohydrin two-step reaction, the first step is to ethylene and chlorine-into the water, and generate 2-chloroethanol. The second step is to use alkali (usually lime) and 2-chloro-ethanol, ethylene oxide formation. 2. Oxidation can be divided into Air Act and oxygen French. Former air as the oxidant, the latter with concentrations greater than 95% (volume) of oxygen as the oxidant. Also useful oxygen-rich air as the oxidant. Oxidation process of industrial production into reaction, ethylene oxide and ethylene oxide recovery Refining three parts.
purposes : ethylene oxide sterilization is, no corrosion of metals, without residual odor, the gas usable material fungicides. Usually ethylene oxide-carbon dioxide (whichever is the ratio of 90:10), or ethylene oxide-dichlorodifluoromethane mixtures, mainly for hospitals and precision instrument disinfection. Ethylene oxide used fumigants used in food, food preservation. For example, the storage of dry vermicelli often due to the role of bacterial decomposition, using ethylene oxide fumigation to prevent degenerating, and the chemical composition of mine, including amino acids and so will not be affected. Oxirane easy with acid, and therefore can be used as Antacids added to certain substances, and thus you down the acidity of these substances or their long-term use have not acidic. Just as in the production of butyl rubber chloride, isobutylene and isoprene copolymer of the chloride solution before accession if ethylene oxide, can be totally finished caustic washing and washing. Oxirane automatic decomposition of the world that can produce energy can be used as rocket and jet propulsion impetus is generally used nitro-methane and ethylene oxide mixture of Minamata Substances (60:40-95:5). This hybrid fuel combustion performance and low freezing point, the relatively stable nature, difficult to detonate. Overall, the ethylene oxide lights directly above it uses very little consumption, ethylene oxide derivatives as ethylene industry after polyethylene, for the second important products. Its importance is its main raw materials for production of L-series. Ethylene oxide derived from the downstream production Lu various types than more ethylene derivatives. The five-ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol toxicity to 27 times, and is similar to ammonia toxicity. The in vivo formation of formaldehyde, ethylene glycol and adipic acid, the effect on the central nervous system narcotic effect, and the mucosa stimulate the role of small packets puree harmful role.
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